Better tools « Charlie Teo Foundation

Treating GBM in a FLASH

Researcher name: A/Prof Cormode and A/Prof Dorsey
Institution: University of Pennsylvania, U.S.
Grant name: Better Tools Grant
Grant amount: Up to $295K
Grant years: 2022-2024

Meet the Researcher

A/Prof David Cormode is an Associate Professor of Radiology at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. A/Prof Cormode completed his PhD at University of Oxford, England in the U.K. and is the group leader of the Nanomedicine and Molecular Imaging Lab. In 2020, A/Prof Cormode was awarded the Distinguished Investigator at Academy for Radiology & Biomedical Imaging Research. His research focuses on the development of novel and multifunctional nanoparticle contrast agents for medical imaging applications.

A/Prof Jay Dorsey is an Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology at University of Pennsylvania, USA and Co-Leader of the Radiation Oncology Translational Center of Excellence at the Abramson Cancer Center. A/Prof Dorsey completed his MD and PhD at University of South Florida, USA and is the group leader of the Dorsey Lab. He is also a board-certified neurological radiation oncologist with 14 years’ experience. His research focuses on understanding the underlying mechanisms underpinning cancer resistance to radiation and chemotherapy and characterizing normal cellular responses to radiation therapy.

This project combines three game-changing approaches to treating brain cancer: (1) a novel form of radiotherapy – known as FLASH radiotherapy – which uses a rapid, ultra-high dose rate radiotherapy beam. This shortens treatment time and minimises damage to healthy brain tissue (2) injection of a drug-loaded gel (called a hydrogel) into the tumour resection cavity to attack and kill residual cancer cells that could not be surgically removed and (3) the hydrogel loaded with a compound effective at attacking GBM stem cells, the tumour cells responsible for tumour recurrence.

This project aims to show the effectiveness of drug-loaded gel (known as hydrogel) as a therapy for brain cancer patients, and explore the effectiveness of combining the hydrogel treatment with a rapid, high-dose rate radiotherapy technology. For patients, this combined treatment approach has the potential to minimise treatment time for patients while sparing healthy brain tissue damage. Most importantly, the drug compound in this study has already been shown to effectively kill GBM and glioma stem cells known to drive recurrence, meaning this treatment approach may prevent tumour recurrence.

FLASH radiotherapy and radiation-responsive hydrogel drug delivery as a novel combination therapy for glioblastoma

Glioblastoma (GBM) patients, despite an aggressive treatment strategy, invariably have recurrence of the primary tumour, leading to death. Seeking improved treatments for GBM and the potential glioma stem cells (GSCs) implicated in recurrence, the team performed a high-throughput screen of a large bioactive drug library and found that the drug Quisinostat effectively targets GSCs and GBM cells at nanomolar concentrations. The team also tested this drug and confirmed efficacy in patient-derived GBM organoids and in mouse GBM models, however, the team observed dose-limiting systemic side effects. Therefore, the team now seek to leverage their collective expertise to develop a therapeutic strategy centered on administration of a radiation-responsive drug loaded hydrogel (RR-gel) to the tumour resection cavity. Such an approach will result in high concentrations of drug deposited directly to the target site, while avoiding unnecessary systemic doses to other organs. Furthermore, since radiotherapy is also part of the standard of care, a hydrogel that synergizes with radiation (e.g. increases the effects of radiotherapy and/or releases drug in response to radiotherapy) will improve treatment outcomes.

The team’s promising preliminary data shows that such a hydrogel can effectively control GBM tumours. Moreover, the team plans to integrate the hydrogel with FLASH radiotherapy, a novel form of radiotherapy that involves ultra-fast delivery of radiation treatment at dose rates several orders of magnitude higher than those conventionally used and has the potential to decrease normal tissue toxicity. The team proposes to develop improved versions of our radiation-responsive hydrogel system, characterize them and test them in vitro and in vivo for their anti-GBM efficacy, in combination with FLASH radiotherapy. The team will use spectral CT to monitor the hydrogel in vivo. The safety of the treatment will be extensively assessed. Overall, the team seeks to develop a breakthrough therapy for GBM.

Early Diagnosis of Childhood Brain Cancer Using a Simple Blood Test

Researcher name: Prof Craig Horbinski
Institution: Northwestern University, U.S.
Grant name: Better Tools Grant
Grant amount: Up to $276K
Grant years: 2022-2024

Meet the Researcher

Prof Craig Horbinski is a Professor of Pathology and Neurosurgery at Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Prof Horbinski completed his MD, PhD at the State University of New York at Buffalo, and holds several Director roles at Northwestern University including Director of Neuropathology, Director of the Neuropathology Fellowship program, and Director of the Northwestern Nervous System Tumour Bank. He has almost 20 years of clinical and research experience, with a research focus on the use of molecular testing in brain tumours to improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy and achieve the goal of personalised medicine.

Many attempts have been made to analyse short DNA fragments from the blood that are associated with cancer. The critical limitation is that these cancer-associated DNA fragments are very low in concentration, and are hidden amongst a sea of other ‘background’ DNA within the blood. This project takes a game-changing approach by analysing longer DNA fragments and comparing the patterns with thousands of known brain tumours to accurately identify the type of brain tumour. This project will also investigate the DNA content across several blood components such as platelets and white blood cells. This approach has never been tested in childhood brain cancer patients.

This blood test technology aims to help children with brain cancer by providing a non-invasive diagnostic that: (1) identifies those children showing neurological symptoms who need brain scans; (2) assist surgeons in surgical planning; (3) identifies those children who may be able to avoid surgery, since some tumours do not benefit from surgery. In addition, this blood test may potentially show whether a tumour is responding to treatment, and whether it is growing back or not.

Methylation profiling of circulating DNA in paediatric brain tumour patients

Most children with brain tumours first come to medical attention with headaches and other neurological symptoms. Because imaging is expensive, a child is often just treated for their symptoms, hoping they get better, without actually being diagnosed. But sometimes, the disease ends up being a brain tumour. Treating these tumours can be difficult, since the developing brain is very sensitive to neurosurgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. We need an earlier, cheaper, and easier test to reliably diagnose and subclassify paediatric brain tumours. This would not only help identify children who do need brain scans, it would also help neurosurgeons if they knew exactly what kind of tumour they were dealing with while planning surgery. This might even help some children avoid surgery altogether, since some tumours don’t benefit from surgery, or if the blood test says it’s unlikely to even be a tumour. It would also be helpful if that same test could tell whether a tumour is responding to treatment, and whether it is growing back or not.

The Nervous System Tumour Bank at Northwestern University in Chicago recently collaborated with scientists from Toronto to show that a new blood test, called “cell-free methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing” (cfMeDIP-seq), could accurately diagnose the presence and type of brain tumour in adult patients. This technique detects fragments of tumour DNA in the circulating blood, and tests it to see if it matches any pattern of DNA in a large reference library consisting of thousands of brain tumours. While cfMeDIP-seq is already being developed for use in adults with brain tumours, it has not yet been explored in children. Northwestern Medicine, in partnership with Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, has the required technical expertise and paediatric brain tumour patient volume to advance cfMeDIP-seq for the care of children with CNS tumours.

A New Approach to Evaluating Immunotherapy

Researcher name: Dr Jessica Buck
Institution: Telethon Kids Institute, AUS
Grant name: Better Tools Grant
Grant amount: Up to $199K
Grant years: 2022-2024

Meet the Researcher

Dr Jessica Buck is an early career research fellow at the Brain Tumour Research Team at the Telethon Kids Institute and the University of Western Australia in Perth, WA. Jessica completed her doctorate at the University of Oxford, UK, and was named as one of the Superstars of STEM by Science and Technology Australia in 2021. Dr Buck is an inspiration to young Aboriginal women in STEM, routinely hosting and mentoring students. Jessica has experience in both preclinical neuroscience and oncology research with a current focus on finding more effective, less harmful treatments for children with brain cancer.

To do this, the team will use laboratory models that incorporate a 'complete' immune system. Having an immune system is essential for testing new immunotherapies, and allows development of brain-specific childhood approaches. This project will study the childhood brain tumour microenvironment, especially the immune compartment, during cancer growth and treatment to uncover the best timing to administer immunotherapy to childhood cancer patients.

This project will develop a new model for testing immunotherapy in the childhood cancer setting. This will help children with brain cancer from three perspectives (1) allowing for identification of more effective childhood cancer-specific treatments (2) improve our understanding of child-specific toxicities and (3) enhance our ability to translate the most effective therapies into the clinic faster.

Using paediatric mice to model paediatric brain tumours

Very few new cancer drugs have been identified for children. We believe this is partially because children are treated as “small adults” in cancer drug discovery. Without exception, cancer drugs are tested in adult clinical trials, with trials in children only performed later, if at all. Furthermore, virtually all preclinical studies have been conducted in adult mice rather than paediatric mice. This completely ignores differences that exist between adults and children in the developmental stage of their brain, immune system, organs, and tumour microenvironment. we will develop world-first techniques to more accurately evaluate new childhood cancer therapies in paediatric mice, rather than in adult mice as is done currently. We hypothesise this will better identify childhood cancer-specific treatments and child-specific toxicities, improving our ability to translate the best therapies into the clinic faster. In particular, our pipeline will enable the testing of promising new immunotherapies in paediatric mice for the first time. Using our paediatric models, we will pioneer the development of preclinical standard-of-care protocols, including radiotherapy, for paediatric mice that mimic clinical protocols. This will then give us clinically-relevant and age-appropriate model systems with which we can overlay and evaluate new immunotherapies, thus expediting their translation to upfront clinical trials. Our long-term vision is that introduction of effective new therapies will afford a reduction in the dose of toxic chemotherapies and radiotherapy currently used for standard-of-care, so that all brain cancer patients can live long, happy, and healthy lives.

Navigating the Immune System Towards the Brain Cancer

Researcher name: Prof Amy Heimberger
Institution: Northwestern University, U.S.
Grant name: Better Tools Grant
Grant amount: Up to $499K
Grant years: 2022-2024

Meet the Researcher

Prof Amy Heimberger is a neurosurgeon and scientist at Northwestern University, USA. Prof Heimberger completed her medical degree at Washington University, USA and leads a laboratory focused on identifying new targets for immunotherapy treatment in brain cancer. Prof Heimberger is at the frontier of her field: she is the scientific director of the Northwestern Medicine Malnati Brain Tumor Institute of the Lurie Cancer Center, she received the Abhijit Guha Award in recognition of her significant contribution and accomplishments in the medical field and serves on the National Cancer Advisory Board in the USA.

This project will be the first study of its kind to investigate how effective this new therapy – called STING – will be in eradicating GBM tumours. This project is game-changing from two perspectives (1) this project will explore a new therapeutic approach never tested before in brain cancer and (2) by directly injecting into the tumour, the drug will directly infiltrate the tumour, thus avoiding the issues of passing through the blood brain barrier. This means a much lower dose may be administered while also avoiding unwanted side effects.

This project aims to find a solution for GBM, which currently has no effective therapies. If proven effective, this therapy will open up opportunities for GBM patients to be successfully treated with immunotherapy, which to date has shown little success. Also, once this project determines the therapy is safe and effective in preclinical models, it will advance into a Phase I clinical trial where the drug will be available for GBM patients.

Preclinical validation of a STING agonist to treat Glioblastoma

The prognosis of glioblastoma patients is poor with a median overall survival (OS) of around 21 months. Whereas radiation, chemotherapy and tumour-treating fields are established treatments at initial diagnosis; at recurrence, there are no effective therapies. Immunotherapy for cancer has had unparalleled progress in achieving long-term remissions, even in cases of advanced metastatic disease. Immunotherapy has been adopted as the standard of care for several tumours. In contrast, immunotherapy has not shown efficacy in treating glioblastoma, partly due to immunosuppression. These mechanisms include tumour infiltration by immunosuppressive cells, malfunction or lack of immune-promoting or cancer-killing cells, and frequent use of immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids, among other factors. Recent studies revealed that an immune-promoting protein named stimulator of interferon genes, or STING, can trigger the anti-tumoral immune response in gliomas and melanoma. The project will explore whether STING activation is an effective immunotherapy for gliomas and whether this treatment can be further enhanced by combining it with other immune-promoting strategies/drugs such as PD-1 blockade or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibition. Here, we propose to investigate this and wish to ultimately determine whether STING agonist drugs are safe and well-tolerated when delivered into the tumours of patients with recurrent glioblastoma, a disease stage that has no effective therapies.

The New Wave of GBM Therapy

Researcher name: Prof Michael Keidar
Institution: George Washington University, U.S.
Grant name: Better Tools Grant
Grant amount: Up to $374K
Grant years: 2021-2023

Meet the Researcher

Prof Michael Keidar is an A. James Clark Professor of Engineering at George Washington University, Washington D.C, USA. Prof Keidar completed his PhD at Tel Aviv University in Israel, has several senior academic positions in the United States and is the director of the Micro-propulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory. He has over 25 years of experience with a research focus in plasma-based nanotechnology, cold plasma physics and applications in biotechnology.

The technology in the project, called plasma discharge tube (PDT) technology, emits electromagnetic waves and can disrupt brain cancer cell growth and spread in a non-invasive manner. Studies at the George Washington University indicate that the PDT device renders brain tumours more sensitive to chemotherapy drugs such as standard of care drug therapy temozolomide. This will be the first treatment to utilise high frequency electromagnetic waves to improve the effectiveness of brain cancer therapy while selectively targeting cancer cells and leaving normal brain tissue unharmed.

This technology will provide a new and non-invasive approach to treating brain cancer patients. The treatment generates electromagnetic fields that can penetrate the scalp and effectively disrupt GBM cells from growing and spreading. To do this, the electromagnetic wave-emitting device is positioned on top of the scalp and targets the precise location of the brain tumour making the cancer cells more susceptible to standard brain cancer drug therapy temozolomide.

Cold plasma discharge tube for glioblastoma treatment

The standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM is maximal surgical resection followed by concurrent radiation and chemotherapy then adjuvant chemotherapy (i.e., temozolomide (TMZ)), which has been shown to only improve median survival ranging from 12-22 months and a dismal five-year survival rate of less than 10%. To date, no effective method exists to eradicate malignant glioblastoma. Researching the literature on available cancer therapies led to the following conclusions: (a) there is a need for non-invasive cancer treatment therapies that selectively induce cancer cell death without harming normal cells; (b) current comparable treatments, including tumour-treating fields (TTFs), require long treatment times from 18-22 hours per day, consistent head shaving, and are reported to cause > 10% skin irritation and sleep disturbances. To overcome these drawbacks, this team proposes a new treatment approach based on its proprietary Plasma Discharge Tube (PDT) Technology that is designed for non-invasive treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) in combination with chemotherapy. Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP), utilized for the development of the PDT device, has consistently exhibited a positive anticancer activity as a stand-alone therapy that can provide genotoxic and phototoxic effects. An ongoing study at GWU suggests that electromagnetic waves formed by CAP can be coupled with cells and might lead to cancer cell sensitization. Unlike drugs, the effect of the PDT delivery system is not diffusion-dependent because the CAP jet can be positioned to treat specific regions in a tumour.